Water Treatment Plant Process Equipment
Water & Wastewater Treatment Process
Water resources are naturally cleaned and reused as part of the hydrologic cycle in the outside world. In the human world, water resources are also cleaned and reused. Our wastewater is channeled to a wastewater treatment plant where it is cleaned and released back into lakes and rivers with process equipment. This water reenters the hydrologic cycle and will eventually be pumped back up by another water treatment plant process to for purification and water quality parameters.
Resources of Wastewater Treatment Process Equipment
You can classify wastewater as domestic, industrial, or storm, according to its water resources. Domestic water resources used for normal activity in homes, businesses and institutions. Water treatment plant process equipment helps it be readily treatable for purification.
The character of industrial wastewater treatment process equipment needed depends on the type of industry using the water. Some industrial wastewaters can be treated the same as domestic wastes through process equipment without difficulty. Others may contain toxic substances or high percentages of organic materials or solids, which make wastewater treatment plant process for water quality parameters difficult. In such cases, the industrial plant may have to pretreat its wastewater to remove these contaminants or reduce them to treatable levels before they are accepted into publicly owned treatment process equipment.
Storm water often goes to a treatment plant, although it is usually low in contaminants. Great amounts of storm water can interfere with treatment efficiency in two ways: Storm water may cause too much dilution of the wastewater. At the same time, it may cause hydraulic overloading of the plant. In most cases, wastewater systems now call for separate storm sewers.
Water Treatment Plant: Water Quality Parameters & Resources
In the treatment plant there are many steps involved in treating wastewater. Below is a quick overview of the possible steps involved. We will learn more about each step as the course goes on.
The general principle in wastewater treatment process is to remove contaminants from the water by getting them either to settle or to float, and then removing this material. Some contaminants are easily removable. Others must be converted to a settling form and sedimentation before they can be removed. Wastewater & water treatment plant process equipment are designed in stages. Each stage either removes contaminants from the wastewater or changes dissolved and suspended contaminants to a form that can be.
Influent: Water Treatment Plant Process Equipment
Influent is the raw material that has been collected and conveyed to the water treatment plant. It includes all the water and debris that entered the collection system.
Primary Treatment: Wastewater Treatment Plant Process
To prevent damage to pumps and clogging of pipes, raw wastewater passes through mechanically raked bar screens to remove large debris, such as rags, plastics, sticks, and cans. Smaller inorganic material, such as sand and gravel, is removed by a grit removal system. The lighter organic solids remain suspended in the water and flow into large tanks, called primary clarifiers. Here, the heavier organic solids settle by gravity. These settled solids, called primary sludge, are removed along with floating scum and grease and pumped to anaerobic digesters for further treatment.
Secondary Treatment: Process Equipment & Water Resources
The primary effluent is then transferred to the biological or secondary stage. Here, the wastewater is mixed with a controlled population of bacteria and an ample supply of oxygen. The microorganisms digest the fine suspended and soluble organic materials, thereby removing them from the wastewater. The effluent is then transferred to secondary clarifiers, where the biological solids or sludge are settled by gravity. As with the primary clarifier, this sludge is pumped to anaerobic digesters, and the clear secondary effluent may flow directly to the receiving environment or to a disinfection facility prior to release. There are several variations of secondary treatment, including:
- Rotating biological contactors (RBC)
Tertiary Treatment for Water Treatment Process
Tertiary, or advanced wastewater treatment process, is the term applied to additional treatment that is needed to remove suspended and dissolved contaminants remaining after conventional secondary treatment. This may be accomplished using a variety of physical, chemical, or biological treatment processes to remove the targeted contaminants. Advanced treatment may be used to remove such things as color, metals, organic chemicals, and nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen.
Process Equipment & Disinfection of Wastewater
Before the final effluent is released into the receiving waters, it may be disinfected to reduce the disease-causing microorganisms that remain in it. The most common processes use chlorine gas or a chlorine-based disinfectant such as sodium hypochlorite. To avoid excess chlorine escaping to the environment, the effluent may be de-chlorinated prior to discharge. Other disinfection options include ultraviolet light and ozone.
In the water treatment plant there are many steps involved in treating wastewater. The general principle in wastewater treatment process is to remove contaminants from the water by getting them to settle or to float, and then remove it. A modern wastewater treatment plant process may include these stages:
Þ Primary treatment
Þ Secondary treatment
Þ Tertiary treatment
Þ Disinfection and effluent discharge.
- Screen the wastewater as it enters the wastewater treatment plant process to remove large items from the sewage. The goal of this step is to remove debris that could damage the treatment facility's process equipment.
- Remove grit from the wastewater by forcing the sewage through a grit chamber. Forcing the wastewater quickly through the chamber prevents organic waste from settling and aerates the mix. Small wastewater treatment plant processes may skip grit removal.
- Pump the screened wastewater into sedimentation tanks to help further separate the components of the sewage. Remove and condense the organic matter, called sludge, which settles to the bottom of the tank.
- Skim the surface of the wastewater to remove oil, soap scum and grease. Rakes from the top of tanks remove these components of wastewater, known collectively as scum.
- Collect the scum and sludge into a single sludge-processing unit for further treatment. Anaerobic digestion processes the solid waste, and some process equipment use the resulting methane gas as a source of energy.
- Filter the wastewater through sand to remove excess iron and calcium, some bacteria and the remaining organic solid particles in the water. Filter the wastewater to reduce the color and make the water more transparent.
- Treat the wastewater with chlorine to kill remaining bacteria. Add chlorine carefully to avoid over contamination; most of the chlorine will break down as it kills the bacteria. If necessary, treat the chlorinated wastewater with chemicals to neutralize any remaining chlorine.
- Use or dispose of the cleansed wastewater, called effluent. Although treatment plants pump most effluent into rivers or oceans, some is used for irrigation purposes.
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